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Preserving Cultural Heritage in Crisis: A Selected Bibliography

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Akinsha, Konstantin, Grigorii Kozlov, and Sylvia Hochfield, Beautiful loot: the Soviet plunder of Europe's art treasures. New York: Random House, 1995.

Alire, Camila, Library Disaster Planning and Recovery Handbook. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc., 2000.

Barton, John P. and Johanna G. Wellheiser, An Ounce of Prevention: A Handbook of Disaster Contingency Planning for Archives, Libraries, and Record Centers. Toronto: Toronto Area Archivists Group Education Foundation, 1985.   

Beurden, Jos van, The return of cultural and historical treasures: the case of the Netherlands. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2012.

Bevan, Robert, The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War. London: Reaktion Books, 2006.

Bogdanos, Matthew with William Patrick, Thieves of Baghdad : one marine's passion for ancient civilizations and the journey to recover the world's greatest stolen treasures. New York: Bloomsbury Pub, 2005.

Bouchoux, Corinee, Rose Valland: Resistance at the Museum. [S.I.] Laurel Publishing, LLC., 2013.

Chamberlain, Kevin, War and Cultural Heritage: an analysis of the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two protocols. Leicester, Great Britain: Institute of Art and Law, 2004.

Cuno, James B., Who Owns Antiquity? museums and the battle over our ancient heritage. Princeton, N.J.; Princeton University Press, 2008.

- Whose Culture? The Promise of Museums and the Debate over Antiquities. Princeton, N.J.; Princeton University Press, 2012.

Edesl, Robert M., Rescuing Da Vinci: Hitler and the nazis stole Europe's great art: America and her allies recovered it. Dallas: Laurel Pub., 2006.

- Saving Italy: the race to rescue a nation's treasures from the Nazis. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2013. 

Edesl, Robert M. with Bret Witter, Monuments Men: Allied Heroes, Nazi thieves, and the greatest treasure hunt in history. New York: Center Street, 2009.

Emberling, Geoff, Katharyn Hanson, and McGuire Gibson, Catastrophe! the looting and destruction of Iraq's past. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2008.

Felch, Jason and Ron Frammolino, Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World's Richest Museum. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011.

Feliciano, Hector, The Lost Museum: The Nazi Conspiracy to Steal the World’s Greatest Works of Art. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

Fortson, Judith, Disaster Planning and Recovery: A How-To-Do-It Manual for Librarians and Archivists. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1992.

Foster, Benjaming R., Karen Pollinger, and Patty Gerstenblith, Iraq Beyond the Headlines: History, Archaeology, and War. CO: World Scientific Publ, 2005.

Goldewijk, Berma Klein, Georg Frerks, and Els van der Plas, Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster. Rotterdam: NAI Publishers, 2011.

Greenfield, Jeanette, The Return of Cultural Treasures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996.

Hutchins, Jane K. and Barbara Roberts, First Aid for Art:  Essential Salvage Techniques. Lenox, Mass: Hard Press Editions, 2006.

Kahn, Miriam B., Disaster Response and Planning for Libraries. 2nd edition. Chicago: American Library Association, 2003. 

Kila, Joris, Heritage Under Siege: military implementation of cultural property protection following the 1954 Hague convention. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2012.

Kila, Joris and James A. Zeidler, Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: protecting cultural property during conflict. Leiden; Boston, MA: Brill, 2013.

Knuth, Rebecca, Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: extremist violence and cultural destruction. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2006.

 - Libricide: the regime-sponsored destruction of books and libraries in the twentieth century.  Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2003.

Kurtz, Michael, American and the Return of Nazi Contraband: the recovery of Europe’s cultural treasures. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Long, Jane S., Field Guide to Emergency Response: a vital tool for cultural institutions. Washington DC: Heritage Preservation, 2006.

Merritt, Elizabeth E. Covering Your Assets: Facilities and Risk Management in Museums, Washington, DC:  American Association of Museums, 2005.

Micewsji, Edwin and Gerhard Sladek, Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: a challenge in peace support operations. Vienna: Armed Forces Print Office, 2002.

Meerts, Paul, Culture and International Law. Hague: Hague Academic Press/T.M.C. Asser Press; West Nyack, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Miles, Margaret M., Plunder: The Ancient Origins of Debate About Cultural Property. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,  2008.

Nafziger, James A.R., Cultural Heritage Issues: the legacy of conquest, colonization, and commerce. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009.

Naidu-Silverman, Ereshnee, The Contribution of Art and Culture in Peace and Reconciliation Processes. Copenhagen, Denmark: Centre for Culture and Development, 2015.

Nicholas, Lynn H., The Rape of Europa: the Fate of Europe's Treasures in the Third Reich and the Second World War. New York: Knopf, 1994.

Noblecourt, André and Henri Alfred Lavachery, Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Paris: UNCESCO, 1958.

O’Keefe, Roger, The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Petrovic, Jadranka, The Old Bridge of Mostar and Increasing Respect for Cultural Property in Armed Conflict. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013.

Polk, Milbry and Angela M.H. Schuster, The Looting of the Iraq Museum, Baghdad: The Lost Legacy of Ancient Mesopotamia. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

Prott, Lyndel V., Witnesses to History: a compendium of documents and writings on the return of cultural objects. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2009.

Raven, James, Lost Libraries: the destruction of great book collections since antiquity.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Raimon, S., Cultural Heritage and Disaster Management. Thiruvananthapuram, India: Kerala State Archives Department, 2006.

Rorimer, James J., Survival: The Salvage and Protection of Art in War. New York: Abelard Press, 1950. 

Rothfield, Lawrence, Antiquities under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection after the Iraq War. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2008.

-The Rape of Mesopotamia: Behind the Looting of the Iraq Museum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Roxan, David and Ken Wanstall: The Rape of Art; the story of Hitler's plunder of the great masterpieces of Europe. New York: Coward-McCann, 1964.

Rush, Laurie Watson, Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2010.

Simon, Matila, The Battle of the Louvre: the struggle to save French art in World War II. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1971.

Simpson, Elizabeth, The Spoils of War: World War II and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural property. New York: H.N. Abrams in association with the Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, 1997.  

Stone, Peter G., Cultural Heritage, Ethics, and the Military. Woodbridge, Suffolk; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2011.

Stone, Peter G. and Bajjaly J. Farchakh, The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2009.

Woolley, Leonard, “A Record of the Work Done by the Military Authorities for the Protection of the Treasures of Art & History in War Areas. London: H.M.S.O., 1947.

Woudenberg, Nout van and Liesbeth Lijnzaad, Protecting Cultural Property in Times of Conflict: An Insight into the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2010.

Zeidler, J. A. and J. D. Kila, Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural Property During Conflict. Leiden: Brill, 2013.


Adami, Tom A., "Future Perfect? Peacekeeping, Peacebuilding and Archives- the United Nations in Sudan" Journal of the Society of Archivists, (Jan 2009) Vol. 30, No. 1, 3-26.

Ahern, James R., “Cultural-Heritage Aspect of Stability Operations: The U.S. Army Reserve Civil Affairs’ Role” The Officer. April-May 2010.

Sigrid Van Der Auwera, “Contemporary Conflict, Nationalism and the Destruction of Cultural Property During Armed ConflictJournal of Conflict Archaeology (January 2012) Vol. 7, Issue 1, 49-65

- “’Culture for Development’ and the UNESCO Policy on the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict” International Journal of Cultural Policy (2013) Vol. 20 No. 3, 245 – 260.  

- “International Law and the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict: Actual Problems and Challenges” International Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society (2013) Vol. 43 No. 4, 175 – 190.

- “Peace Operations and the Protection of Cultural Property During and After Armed Conflict” International Peacekeeping (2010) Vol. 17 No. 1, 3 – 16.

- “UNESCO and the Protection of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict” International Journal of Cultural Policy (2013) Vol. 19 No. 1, 1 – 19.

Bogdanos, M., “The Casualties of War: The Truth about the Iraq Museum” American Journal of Archaeology (2004) Vol. 109, 477-526.

Brothers, Cecilia, “Cultural Heritage and Armed ConflictCultural Resource Update (Nov 2009) Vol. 6 No. 10, 3.

Corn, Geoffrey S., “‘Snipers in the Minaret—What is the Rule?’ The Law of War and the Protection of Cultural Property: A Complex Equation” The Army Lawyer (July 2005) 28.

Desch, Thomas, “The Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict” Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (1999) Vol. 2, 63-90.

Donnelly, R.R., “Florence Rises from the Flood”, National Geographic Society, (1967),

Ferraro, Jordan and Jane Henderson, "Identifying Features of Effective Emergency Response Plans" Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, (Spring 2011) No. 50, Issue 1, 35-38.

Frey, Bruno S. and Dominic Rohner, “Protecting Cultural Monuments Against Terrorism.”

Defence and Peace Economics (June 2007) Vol.13 No. 3, 245-252.

Gerstenblith, Patty, “Archaeology in the Context of War: Legal Frameworks for Protecting Cultural Heritage during Armed Conflict” Archaeologies (2009) Vol. 5 No. 1, 18-31.

- "From Bamiyan to Baghdad: Warfare and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage at the Beginning of the 21st Century" Georgetown Journal of International Law (Winter 2006) Vol. 37, No. 2, 245 - 351.

-“Protecting Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict: Looking Back, Looking Forward,” Cardozo Public Law, Policy & Ethics Journal (Summer 2009) Vol. 7 No. 3, 677-708.

Gibson, McGuire, “Culture as Afterthought: US Planning and Non-planning in the Invasion of Iraq” Management of Archaeological Sites (November 2009) Vol. 11 No. 3 – 4, 333 – 339.

Gioia, Andra, “The Development of International Law Relating to the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: the Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention” Italian Yearbook of International Law 2001 (2003), v. xi, 25-57

Hladík. Jan, “The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: Some observations on the implementation at the national level” MUSEUM International (2005) No. 228, 1-7.

- “The Review Process of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and Its Impact on International Humanitarian Law” Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (1998) Vol. 1, 313-322.

Isakhan, Benjamin, “Creating the Iraqi Cultural Heritage Destruction Database: Calculating a Heritage Destruction Index” International Journal of Heritage Studies (2014) Vol. 20 No. 2.

- “Targeting the Symbolic Dimension of Baathist Iraq: Cultural Destruction, Historical Memory, and National IdentityMiddle East Journal of Culture and Communication (2011) Vol. 4, 257–281.

Jackson, Richard, “Cultural Property Protection in Stability Operations” Army Lawyer (2008), 47-57.

Kila, Joris, “Inactive, Reactive, or Pro-active? Cultural Property Crimes in the Context of Contemporary Armed Conflicts” Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies (2013) Vol. 1 No. 4, 319 – 375. 

Kosch, Corine, “A Blue Shield for the Protection of our Endangered Cultural Heritage International Preservation Issue IPI No. 4, 2003.

Rush, Laurie, “Working with the Military to Protect Archaeological Sites and Other Forms of Cultural Property”, World Archaeology (2012) Vol. 44 No. 3, 359 – 377.

Salam Al Quntar et al.. "Responding to a Cultural Heritage Crisis: The Example of the Safeguarding the Heritage of Syria and Iraq Project"Near Eastern Archaeology 78.3 (2015): 154-160.

Silverman, Randy, “Toward a National Disaster Response Protocol” Libraries & the Cultural Record (Fall 2006) Vol. 41 No. 4, 497 – 511. 

Stone, Peter G., “Archaeologists and Conflict: An Impossible Relationship?” Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites (November 2009) Vol. 11 No. 3 - 4, 315 – 332.

- “The Identification and Protection of Cultural Heritage During the Iraq Conflict: A Peculiarly English tale” Antiquity (2005) Vol. 79 No. 306, 933-943.

- “Protecting Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict: Lessons from Iraq”, Archaeologies (2009) Vol. 5 No. 1, 32-39.

Thurlow, Matthew D., “Protecting Cultural Property in Iraq: How American Military Policy Comports with International Law” Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal (2005) Vol. 8, 153 - 187.

Wegener, Corine and Marjan Otter, “Cultural Property at War: Protecting Heritage during Armed Conflict” The Getty Conservation Institute Newsletter (Spring 2008) Vol. 23, No.1.

​Other Publications

Boylan, Patrick J., Review of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (The Hague Convention of 1954. UNESCO, 1993.

Carlson, Sarah et al., Pilot Study: Psychological Impacts of a Terrorist Attack on a National Icon, Final Report. Prepared for the Department of Homeland Security Office of Science and Technology, Department of the Interior, and the National Monuments and Icons Sector Partners. Washington, DC: Homeland Security Institute, March 31, 2008. 

Clinton, William Jefferson, The Hague Convention and the Hague Protocol: Message from the President of the United States Transmitting The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (the Convention) and for Accession, the Hague Protocol, Concluded on May 14, 1954, and Entered into Force on August 7, 1956. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Merritt, Roxanne et al., Civil Affairs Arts, Monuments, and Archives Guide GTA 41-01—02. Department of the Army. March 2005, February 2007, August 2009.

Dorge, Valerie and Sharon Jones, Building an Emergency Plan: A Guide for Museums and Other Cultural Institutions. Getty Conservation Institute, 1999.

Stanley-Price, Nicholas, Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery. Papers from the ICCOM FORUM held on October 4 – 6, 2005.

Toman, Jiří, Cultural Property in War : Improvement in protection: commentary on the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Paris, France: UNESCO, 2009.

- The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: commentary on the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its protocol, signed on 14 May, 1954 in the Hague, and on other instruments of international law concerning such protection. Brookfield, VT, Dartmouth: UNESCO, 1996.

UNESCO, First Meeting of the High Contracting Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, UNESCO House, Paris, 16-25 July 1962: Report. Paris: UNESCO, 1962.

USAID, Field Operations Guide for Disaster Assessment and Response, Version 4.0, Nov. 2005.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, National Monuments & Icons: Critical Infrastructure & Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan, May 2007.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, National Monuments and Icons Sector Specific Plan: An Annex to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan, 2010.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Federal Emergency Management Agency, Integrating Historic Property and Cultural Resource Considerations Into Hazard Mitigation Planning. February 9. 2013.

Wegener, Corine, “Illicit Traffic and Looting of Cultural Property During Armed Conflict.”  Organised Crime in Art and Antiquities: selected papers and contributions from the International Conference on Organised Crime in Art and Antiquities Courmayeur Mont Blanc, Italy, December 12 – 14, 2008 , Stefano Manacorda (editor) Milan, Italy: International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program, 2009.

- “The Iraq National Museum: Networking, Coordination and Collaboration in Wartime IraqInternational Symposium Proceedings, Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad, India, November 23 - 27 2003 (Paris: International Council of Museums), 2004, 253 - 257.

Wellheiser, Johanna G. and Nancy E. Gwinn, Preparing for the worst, planning for the best: protecting our cultural heritage from disaster. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the IFLA Preservation and Conservation Section, the IFLA Core Activity for Preservation and Conservation, and the Council on Library and Information Resources, Inc., with the Akademie der Wissenschaften and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, July 30 - August 1, 2003. München: K.G. Saur, 2005.


Burning Books: The Destruction of the National Library in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo. Norwegian Film Institute, 2002.

The Monuments Men. Columbia Pictures, Twentieth Century Fox, Sony Pictures, Siebente Babelsberg Film, and Smokehouse,  2014.

The Rape of Europa. Venice: CA: Menemsha Films, 2008.

The Train. MGM, 1965.